Sunday, July 21, 2019

Optimizing Cash Management Model With Computer Intelligence

Optimizing Cash Management Model With Computer Intelligence Alli  and M.M. Ramya Abstract In today’s technical era, the financial organizations have great challenges to optimize the cash management process. Maintaining minimum cash leads to customer frustration. At the same time, upholding excess cash is a loss to the organization. Hence, soft computing based cash management solutions are required to maintain optimal cash balance. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one such technique which plays a vital role in the fields of cognitive science and engineering. In this paper, a novel ANN-based cash Forecasting Model (ANNCFM) has been proposed to identify the cash requirement on daily, weekly and monthly basis. The six cash requirement parameters: Reference Year (RY), Month of the Year (MOY), Working Day of the Month (WDOM), Working Day of the Week (WDOW), Salary Day Effect (SDE) and Holiday Effect (HDE) were fed as input to ANNCFM. Trials were carried out for the selection of ANNCFM network parameters. It was found that number of hidden neurons, learning rate and the momentum when set to 10, 0.3 and 0.95 respectively yielded better results. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and mean squared error (MSE) were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. MSE that was less than 0.01 proves the capability of the proposed ANNCFM in estimating the cash requirement. Keywords: ANN, ANNCFM , neuron, back-propagation, momentum, learning rate. Introduction: Forecasting cash demand needs to be more accurate for any financial organization including banks [1-3]. If the forecast is flawed, in addition to making financial losses to the banks, it results in customer dissatisfaction. In banking industry, an earlier cash requirement study was made using feed forward neural network with back propagation for short term data of two months [1]. Subsequently another comparative study was made for the cash anticipation using a classic time series models and artificial neural networks [2]. The daily cash requirement models for a bank were optimized with particle swarm and compared with least square method for short term data [3]. The main objective of the paper is to design, develop and test a unique supervised method to forecast the cash requirement for banks from their historic data. 1.1 ANN Background ANN is an efficient tool in understanding the complexities of real world problems in all fields of our daily life[4]. It is used as a function optimizer for linear as well as nonlinear problems in science,engineering,technology,management and finance[5-9]. Artificial neural network learning methods provides the best approach for approximating discrete,real and vector valued target functions [10-12], for complex problems, which are not possible to solve by conventional mathematical methods like analytical and numerical technique. ANN are applied in forex market prediction,portfolio optimization,decision making, metrological parameters forecasting[13-19] etc., The various ANN based approaches applied by researchers in finance field as an alternative to traditional time series model includes Financial and economic forecasting, credit authorization screening, simulation of market behavior, mortgage risk assessment, risk rating of investments and detection of regularities in security price movements [15-19]. 2.0 Design of Proposed ANNCFM Architecture: The process of designing a neural network in many fields resulted in a satisfactory performance but building a neural network forecast for a particular problem is nontrivial task. The modeling issues that affect the performance of the neural network must be selected carefully. 2.1. Selection of ANN Parameters In general, the design of multilayer ANN can have many layers where a layer represents a set of distributed parallel processing nodes. The three layered ANN network with one input, one output and one intermediate hidden layer is sufficient to approximate any complex non-linear function. In the case of forecasting studies many experimental results also confirms ANN with one hidden layer is enough to predict the required data [6-8]. The model architecture of ANNCFM is shown in the Fig1. Fig1: Architecture of ANNCFM Model The important critical decision is to determine the architecture is i) number of layers, ii) number of neurons in each layer, iii) number of arcs which interconnect with nodes , iv) activation function of hidden and output nodes, v) training algorithm, vi)data transformation or normalization, vii)training and test sets and viii)performance measures. 3.0 Design of Proposed ANN Models The proposed ANNCFM model consists of one input, one hidden and an output layer as discussed in section 2.1. In this study the data was collected from a semi–urban area bank located in India. The typical daily cash requirement for thebank for one year is shown in Fig2. Fig. 2: Typical Cash Requirement for a Year The collected data was for a period of three years (2010 to 2012) and was used for training and testing with the following input parameters: RY- Reference year: ranges between 1 to 3 as three years MOY-Month of the year: ranges from 1to 12, WDOM-Working day of the month: ranging from 1 to 27, WDOW –Working day of the week: ranging from 1 to 6, SDE- Salary day effect: ranging from 1 to 3, and HDE- Holiday and the week end effect: either 0 or 1. The fore mentioned parameters were used as six input neurons. In the hidden layer, the number of neurons were varied from 8 to 50.The output layer had one neuron that corresponds to the optimal cash requirement for a day. 3.1 Pseudocode- ANNCFM Main() { [W, V, Voj, Wok]=ANNCFMtrain( x,nip,nh,op,ÃŽ ±,ÃŽ ¼,t) yk = ANNCFMtest(ts, W,V, Voj,Wok,t) [Mserr,Mape]=ANNCFMevaluate() } FunctionANNCFMtrain(x,nip,nh,op,ÃŽ ±,ÃŽ ¼,t) returns network with modified weight { Repeat { For each training sample x(I,nip) //Feed forward computation //Determine the output neuron between input layer and hidden layer //Determine the output neuron between hidden layer and output layer //Compute the error signal between the output and hidden layer //Update the weights between the output(k) and Hidden(j) layer; If itr=1 then { else End if } //Update bias between the output and hidden If itr =1 then { Else End if } //Update the weights between the input(i) and Hidden(j) layer; If itr=1 then { Else End if } //Update bias between the hidden and input If itr =1 then { Else End if } } Until mse } Function ANNCFMtest(ts, W,V, Voj,Wok,t ) returns output(y) { For each testsample ts //Feed forward computation //Determine the output neuron between input layer and hidden layer //Determine the output neuron between hidden layer and output layer } ANNCFM evaluate(tk ,yk,ts) { } 4.0 Evaluation Metrics: In order to derive and evaluate the performance of the most appropriate model that fulfils our objective of optimizing the cash management, few metrics were used. The accuracy of the proposed ANNCFM is evaluated using MAPE and MSE which are defined as follows: MSE= Where Xt is the actual data at period t, Ft is the forecast at period, t, et is the forecast error at period t, while n is the number of observations. 5.0 Results and discussion: The data for a period of three years (2010-2012) was collected from City Union Bank (CUB)-ukt bank branch to simulate the network using MATLAB .For the proposed study the total number of data for the three years is 879, in which the first two and half years, 737 data were used for training(80%) and the remaining six months 142 data sets (20%) were used for testing. Studies found that input data normalization with certain criteria, prior to training process, is crucial to obtain good results, as well as to fasten significantly the calculations [J.Sola J. Sevilla]. Hence the input data was normalized before training. In ANNCFM, 15 runs were made by varying the number of hidden neurons from 10 to 50 using gradient descent with momentum back-propagation (traingdm) for the default training parameters learning rate =0.01, momentum=0.95, Goal=0, and number of iterations as 6000, are illustrated in table 1-column2. The convergence of ANNCFM is influenced by number of hidden neurons in which by varying the number of hidden neurons between 10 through 50. The error was minimal when the number of hidden neurons was set to 10, 20, 40, 45 and 50, by achieving a MSE of 0.0079 as observed from column 3 of table 1. As the number of hidden neurons increase, there is a significant increase in the computational time. Hence the number of hidden neurons in the proposed study was fixed as 10. The pictorial representation for the optimal hidden neuron against its MSE are shown in Fig. 3. Fig.3: Optimal Number of hidden neurons. The learning rate ‘lr’ arrives at a local optimum for the higher learning rate and global optimum for slow learning process. Different trials were made to identify the optimal learning rate to avoid the unstable condition and fluctuations in the results. Learning rate was varied between 0.1 through 0.5 in which 0.3 yielded an optimal learning rate for the given data set, as shown in Fig-4. Fig 4: Optimal learning rate The momentum plays a vital role in identifying the convergence point. Momentum, when set too low, it may get stuck into local minima, and if it is too high, network will become unstable. So there is a need to identify the optimal momentum value for ANNCFM, various momentum values were tested between 0.8 and 1.0, the trained results shows that the optimal momentum value was 0.95 are shown in the Fig-5 Fig 5: Optimal Momentum rate In the ANNCFM model to train and test the cash requirement for a day, week, month the following parameters values are selected based on their performance from the different number of runs made above: i) the number of input neurons=6, ii) maximum number of iteration=6000, iii) learning rate= 0.3, iv) momentum=0.95, v) transfer function=tansig/tansig (hidden and output layer). The optimal selection of the above parameters helped in improving the performance, by minimizing the error rate. This is evident from Table 1, that shows the MSE achieved before and after parameter selection. Table1: ANNCFM performance for different number of hidden neurons The ANNCFM was used to estimate daily, weekly and monthly cash requirement. The estimated values were compared with the actual values for the testing period are shown in Fig.6a,b,c.for the daily ,weekly and monthly prediction. The obtained results shows the ANNCFM was found to perform reasonably good for all the three models .The weights calculated by our ANNCFM was found to be sufficient for cash prediction in which RY,MOY,WDOM, WDOW are essential parameters, and SDE,HDE are additional parameters .The connection weight approach was used to quantify the importance of input variable [20]. The preference of the input parameters were found based on the weights obtained was evident from Table 2, column-4. Table 2: ANNCFM Weights-Preferences. The input parameters SDE and HDE plays a vital role in daily and weekly model as it was observed from the above table it effectively takes care the need of peak cash requirement at the beginning of every month and during holiday periods. The role of SDE in the weekly cash prediction could be easily understood for the weeks like 1,5,14, where the cash requirement is maximum since the beginning of the month lies within the week. However for the 9th and 10th as well as for the 18th and 19th week cash requirement shows the new month starts between the weeks. The monthly model was plotted for six months as shown in Fig.6c in which the experimental results shows that the estimated values were most influenced by WDOM .The cash required and predicted was minimum for the fourth month in which WDOM was minimum. The MAPE and MSE for ANNCFM are shown in Table 3 . Fig.6-a: ANNCFM –Daily Model Fig.6-b: ANNCFM –Weekly Model Fig .6-c : ANNCFM –Monthly Model Table 3 : MAPE and MSE errors for ANNCFM The comparison made between the actual and forecast data shown from the figures indicates that the six input variables selected in our model is sufficient to identify the cash need which is changing from time to time. 6.0 Conclusion: The observations from the experimental results of this study shows that ANNCFM is a useful tool to predict the cash requirement in emerging banking sector. ANNCFM using feed forward neural network training with back-propagation algorithm optimize the needs of cash on daily, weekly and monthly basis. In the implementation process the data set used for the years between 2010 and 2012 were trained and tested to measure the performance. The input parameters were initialized and different runs were made for the proposed model to find out the optimal number of hidden neurons as 10, momentum as 0.95 and learning rate as 0.3 to train and test the network using sigmoid transfer function. The estimated results were with minimal error for the better performance with an accuracy of 91.23%. References. Fraydoon Rahnama Roodposhti , FarshadHeybati and Seyed Reza Musavi, â€Å"A comparison of classic time series models and artificial neural networks in anticipation of cash requirements of banks: A case study in Iran â€Å", Academic and Business Research Institute International Conference, Orlando, USA, 2010. PremChand Kumar and EktaWalia , â€Å"Cash Forecasting: An Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Finance†, International Journal of Computer Science Applications , Vol. 3, No. 1, pages. 61-77, 2006. 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The Origin of Emotion Labour

The Origin of Emotion Labour Emotions are feelings that people experience, interpret, reflect on, express, and manage (Thoits, 1989). They arise through social interaction, and are influenced by social, cultural, interpersonal, and situational conditions (Martin, 1999). In many situations in our daily lives, we often find ourselves suppressing feelings and displaying a more socially accepted emotion that is deemed more appropriate. For example, showing excitement about a companys promotion or suppressing fury when being cut off by someone in a waiting line. Regulating individuals emotions to comply with social norms then is referred to as emotion work (Hochschild, 1990; p. 118). When we need to display particular emotions and suppress others, which required by our job roles, we do our emotion management for a wage. Hochschild (1983) termed this regulation of ones emotions to comply with occupational or organizational norms as emotional labour. She defined emotional labour as the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display; emotional labour is sold for a wage and therefore has exchange value (Hochschild, 1983; p.7). According to Hochschild (1983), jobs involving emotional labour possess three characteristics: they require the workers to make facial or voice contact with the public; they require the worker to produce an emotional state in the client or customer, and they provide the employer with an opportunity to utilize some control over the emotional activities of workers (Hochschild, 1983). Based on impression management, Ashforth and Humphrey (1993) defined emotional labour as the act of displaying the appropriate emotion. Their definition differs from Hochschilds (1983), since their definition emphasizes the actual behaviour rather than the presumed emotions underlying the behaviour (Ashforth Humphrey, 1993). According to Morris and Feldman (1997), emotional labour possesses the following characteristics: (a) emotion work occurs in face-to-face or voice-to-voice interactions with clients; (b) emotions are displayed to influence other peoples emotions, attitudes and behaviours; and (c) the display of emotions has to follow certain rules. 2.1.2 Dimensions of Emotional Labour and Its Measures Brotheridge and Grandey (2002) restructured emotional labour into two categories: One focuses on the characteristic of the job and the other emphasizes employees emotion management process. The former is called job-focused emotional labour which includes the frequency, duration, variety, and intensity of emotional labour and display rules. The latter is named employee-focused emotional labour, an emotion management skill that employees use in the course of interactions with clients. This category includes surface acting and deep acting. Brotheridge and Lee (2003) used the similar approach. They developed an emotional labour measure including both job-focused and employee-focused variables. Specifically, their measure has six facets: frequency of interaction, intensity and variety of emotional display, duration of interaction, and surface and deep acting. Emotional labour researchers often ignored spontaneous and genuine emotions, acknowledged as passive deep acting by Hochschild (1983), in the development of the emotional labour measure. Diefendorff, Croyle, and Gosserand (2005) constructed the display of naturally felt emotions as an independent factor and formed a three-dimensional emotional labour instrument: surface acting, deep acting, and naturally felt emotions. In summary, despite many different measures developed, the general view is that job-related variables, such as frequency, intensity, variety, and display rules are experienced as the antecedents of emotional labour rather than emotional labour itself and two acting modes (surface and deep acting), that employees use to match the required emotional display are regarded as the true components of emotional labour (Grandey, 2000 A.A. Grandey, Emotion regulation in the workplace: a new way to conceptualize emotional labor, Journal of Occupational health Psychology 5 (1) (2000), pp. 95-110. Abstract | icon_pdfPDF (1059 K) | Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (124)Grandey, 2000). 2.1.3 Servicing Acting Based on Goffmans (1959) dramaturgical perspective of social interactions, Hochschild theorized that service is a show where the service provider is an actor, the customer is the audience, and the work setting is the stage (Grandey, 1999). The work place (restaurant) provides the setting and circumstance that allows actors (wait staff) to perform for audiences (diners). The interaction between actors and audiences is based on their mutual definition of the setting, which can be interpreted as occupational or organizational norms or display rules. Surface acting and deep acting are two types of acting mechanism that emotional labour preformed. 2.1.3.1 Surface Acting Surface acting is a discrepancy between felt and displayed emotion (Ashforth Humphrey, 1993). Surface acting involves employees simulating emotions that are not actually felt, by changing their outward appearances (i.e., facial expression, gestures, or voice tone) when exhibiting required emotions. For example, a hotel front desk employee may put on a smile and cheerfully greet a customer even if she or he is feeling down. In this case, the front desk clerk feigns emotions that are not experienced (Chu, 2002, P.18). Using the surface acting technique, people change the outward expression of emotion in the service of altering their inner feelings. By changing facial or bodily expressions, such as slumped shoulders, bowed head, or drooping mouth, inner feelings can be altered to a coincident state (Hochschild, 1993). 2.1.3.2 Deep Acting Deep acting occurs when employees feelings do not fit the situation; they then use their training or past experience to work up appropriate emotions (Chu, 2002, P.19). Unlike surface acting, deep acting involves changing inner feelings by altering something more than outward appearance. In surface acting, feelings are changed from the outside in, whereas feelings are changed from the inside out in deep acting (Hochschild, 1983). Hochschild (1983) classified deep acting as (1) exhorting feeling, whereby one actively attempts to evoke or suppress an emotion, and (2) trained imagination, whereby one actively invokes thoughts, images, and memories to cause the related emotion (thinking of a wedding to feel happy or a funeral to feel sad). In other words, employees use their training or past experiences to help summoning appropriate emotions or responses (sadness, cheerfulness) for a given scene. By practicing deep acting, emotions are actively induced, suppressed, or shaped (Kruml Geddes, 2000). 2.1.4 Functions of Emotion Labour Zapf (2002, P.248) stated that Emotion work is a part of an overall task and, thus, it helps to fulfil the overall task and increase task effectiveness. Ashforth, B.E. and Humphrey, R.H., 1993. Emotional labor in service roles: the influence of identity. Academy of Management Review 18, pp. 88-115. Full Text via CrossRefAshforth and Humphrey (1993) consider emotion work as a form of impression management because by showing certain emotions the employee deliberately attempts to foster certain social perceptions of him- or herself. Emotion work is done to influence the emotions of the clients either as the ultimate or as an instrumental goal. In the service business, the premise is that customers or clients would be more likely to do business with an organization when they experience the interaction with service providers positively. This should mainly depend on how far the interaction with the service providers either supports or threatens their self-esteem. Emotion labour may help to make the social interaction more calculable and assist to avoid embarrassing situations that might otherwise interrupt the interaction with clients (Ashforth Humphrey, 1993). Moreover, emotion work may help to develop or stabilize the organization-customer relationship for building trust in the organization. This is more important in the service sector than in other sectors; because (1) it is difficult to assess the quality of service; (2), because the service product is immediately consumed and corrections, such as giving the product back, are impossible (Ashforth and Nerdinger, 1994); (3), emotion labour should influence the clients emotions thereby influencing their cognitions and behaviours. (4), influencing a clients emotion may make other things easier. In the entertainment business and in the helping professions, influencing the clients emotion may be the ultimate goal. 2.2 Antecedents of Emotional Labour Antecedents of emotional labour including two characteristics: individual characteristics and job characteristics. 2.2.1 Individual characteristics Emotional labour researchers seem to agree that service workers emotional acting can be explained by personality traits because personal dispositions underlie much of the way that people think and behave (Ashkanasy, Hartel and Daus, 2002). Two personality variables as the antecedents of emotional labour will be examined, which are negative affectivity and intrinsic motivation. 2.2.1.1 Negative Affectivity Negative affectivity is a dispositional personality variable and an individuals tendency to experience discomfort across time and situations (Watson and Clark, 1984). Individuals high in negative affectivity tend to resident the negative aspects of themselves, others, and situations in a generally more negative way and often seem to be anxious, nervous, and afraid (Cropanzano et al., 1993 R. Cropanzano, K. James and M.A. Konovsky, Dispositional affectivity as a predictor of work attitudes and job performance, Journal of Organizational Behavior 14 (6) (1993), pp. 595-606. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (118)Cropanzano, James, and Konovsky, 1993). Individuals low in negative affectivity are typically in states of calmness and peace (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). As discussed by Liu, Perrewe, Hochwarter, and Kacmar (2004), negative emotional experiences is aroused by negative affectivity to across time and situations that may obstruct individua ls to regulate their emotional experiences in the service encounter. Such individuals appear to fake their positive emotions when necessary (Kim, 2008). The relationship between negative affectivity and stressors is also supported by the basic theory of heat-affect-overload (Van De Vliert and Van Yperen, 1996). Specifically, employees living and working in hot climates of countries such as Nigeria, Indonesia, and Singapore are high in negative affectivity and experience role overload. It has been proposed that availability of heat or hot climate deranges the thermoregulatory system of the human body and leads to negative affectivity. Such high negative affectivity individuals are faced with higher role overload. According to Osman and Kayode (2008), who studied in emotional dissonance and emotional exhaustion among hotel employees in Nigeria, they stated that even though the hotels may have functioning air-conditioning systems, regular power cut or outages due to poor electric power infrastructure in Nigeria may cause frustration among employees and customers. In addition, the high cost of running alternative power source like generators limits the proper use of the air-conditioning systems in most of the hotels. Frontline hotel employees such as door attendants, food servers, and beverage servers have to serve customers in outdoor facilities, such employees are exposed to direct sunlight and humidity under these circumstances. Most of the frontline employees cannot afford to buy air-conditioning systems in their houses; if they could, they do not enjoy it due to irregular power supply in the country. Furthermore, they may not have sufficient financial resources to buy automobiles having air -conditioning systems. Therefore, such employees usually far from their houses go to work, using modes of public transportation such as buses, which are overloaded and are devoid of air-conditioning systems. Accordingly, frontline hotel employees in a country such as Nigeria are high in negative affectivity and experience-deepened stress. Employees in frontline service jobs of the hospitality industry in Nigeria are expected to manage their emotions by changing their outward appearance to display organizationally desired emotions while the inner feelings remain unchanged and thus are likely to experience emotional exhaustion (Osman and Kayode, 2008). In addition, negative affectivity is widely used in strain-related research and has been linked with emotional exhaustion (Houkes, Janssen, De Jonge, and Nijhuis, 2001). In their meta-analytic work, Thoresen et al., 2003 C.J. Thoresen, S.A. Kaplan, A.P. Barsky, C.R. Warren and K. De Chermont, The affective underpinnings of job perceptions and attitudes: a meta-analytic review and integration, Psychological Bulletin 129 (6) (2003), pp. 914-945. Abstract | Article | icon_pdfPDF (244 K) | Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (78)Thoresen, Kaplan, Barsky, Warren, and De Chermont (2003) reported an estimated mean population correlation of .54 between negative affectivity and emotional exhaustion. According to Spector, Zapf, Chen, and Frese, (2000), the perception mechanism also proposes useful guidelines for developing the relevant hypotheses. That is, the perception mechanism states that high negative affectivity individuals tend to perceive their jobs as s tressful and experience high levels of strains. It means, high negative affectivity frontline employees in the hotel industry are susceptible to higher emotional dissonance and emotional exhaustion. 2.2.1.2 Intrinsic Motivation Another personality variable used as the antecedents of emotional labour is intrinsic motivation. To date various personal resources or personality variables (e.g., self-efficacy, optimism, and locus of control) have been examined with regard to emotional dissonance and emotional exhaustion (Ito and Brotheridge, 2003). As a personal resource and a key personality variable, intrinsic motivation has not received much empirical attention in the hospitality management and marketing literatures (Karatepe and Uludag, 2007). Intrinsic motivation refers to an individuals feeling of challenge or competence derived from performing a job (Keaveney, 1992, p.151). Intrinsically motivated employees have better problem-solving skills and are innovative (Miller, 2002). Grant (2008, p.49) states that intrinsically motivated individuals feel naturally drawn, or pulled, toward completing their work, are process focused-they see the work as an end in and of itself, and are present focused-they are concerned with the experience of performing the work itself. Consistent with the Conservation of Resources Theory, intrinsic motivation is one of the personal resources that can be used for coping with emotional dissonance and exhaustion. As a personal resource, intrinsic motivation can affect employees willingness and perceived effort to manage emotional experiences in the service encounter. Such a personal resource can also be invested in aiding the process of stress resistance and can contribute to the maintenance of res ource reservoirs (Hobfoll, 2001). Consequently, employees with personal resources have mastery that enables them to cope with demanding or forbidding conditions more effectively and thus prevents them from experiencing emotional exhaustion (Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Demerouti, and Schaufeli, 2007). Recently, Karatepe and Uludag (2007) also demonstrated that intrinsic motivation lowered emotional exhaustion for a sample of frontline hotel employees in Northern Cyprus. 2.2.2 Job Characteristics 2.2.2.1 Interaction Characteristics Customer satisfaction depends on the quality of the interpersonal interaction between the customer and frontline employees (Bitner, 1990). Hochschild (1983) argued that job characteristics such as numerous interactions with customers are likely to increase service providers emotional labour. Brotheridge and Grandey (2002) found that frequency and variety of emotional display were positively related to surface acting and deep acting and that duration was positively related to deep acting. In the article by Brotheridge and Lee (2003), frequency and variety showed a positive relationship with surface acting and deep acting, although duration was not related to either acting. Diefendorff, Croyle, and Gosserand (2005) reported interaction characteristics (frequency, duration, and routineness) were not significant predictors of surface acting but mostly related to deep acting. Specifically, duration had a positive impact on deep acting and routineness showed a negative influence on deep ac ting. The most popular theory regarding the relationship between customer contact variables and emotional labour strategies originates from Morris and Feldman, 1996 J.A. Morris and D.C. Feldman, The dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor, The Academy of Management Review 21 (4) (1996), pp. 986-1010. Full Text via CrossRefMorris and Feldmans (1996) conceptual work. The authors argued that the more often a work role requires socially proper emotional displays, the greater the companys demand for emotional regulation and the greater employees emotional labour; frequent changes in the variety of emotions to fit in different situational contexts require more planning and anticipation on the part of service employees, thereby entailing greater emotional labour; and emotional displays of long duration require more effort than short duration, leading to greater emotional labour. This notion suggests the possibility of frequency, variety, and duration increasing emotional labo ur in general (both surface and deep acting). However, previous findings especially regarding duration seem to suggest that duration largely leads to deep acting. Deep acting may be the strategy of choice during long interaction because it becomes difficult for employees to fake emotion for a long period of time (Diefendorff et al., 2005). 2.2.2.2 Job Autonomy The hospitality literature has shown that job autonomy can mitigate the level of hospitality employees emotional exhaustion (Kim, Shin, and Umbreit 2007). Morris and Feldman (1996, 1997) suggested employees who have less autonomy over their behaviour should feel more emotive dissonance, which likely leads them to fake feelings (surface acting); and those who have more autonomy experience less emotive dissonance, therefore they are likely to express their natural emotions. According to their rationale, job autonomy is not related to emotive effort (i.e., deep acting). 2.2.2.3 Display Rules According to Hochschild, 1983 A.R. Hochschild, The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA (1983).Hochschild (1983), service occupations involve strong norms and/or expectations regarding displays of emotions. Research has shown that display rules have a positive relationship with emotional acting (Brotheridge and Lee, 2002). Some studies separate display rules into positive and negative rules. Positive display rules evaluate service providers recognitions on expressing positive emotions and negative display rules evaluate the recognitions regarding suppressing negative emotions at work. Brotheridge and Grandey (2002) showed that both types of display rules were positively correlated with both types of acting. Diefendorff and Richard (2003) hypothesized that perceived demands (positive and negative display rules) would be positively related to emotional display, but the result indicated that emotional display only led by positive rule demands. Diefendorff et al. (2005) found that positive display rules were positively correlated with deep acting and negative display rules were positively correlated with surface acting. The authors explained that positive rules (what to express) clarify expectations better and result in good faith attempts (deep acting), whereas negative rules (what not to express) lead employees to just go through the motion and fake their emotions (surface acting). In hospitality organizations such as hotel companies, distinct norms are often included in the job description and employees are trained consistently (e.g., showing a smile with a mirthful greeting). Hence, it seems plausible that hotel firms display rules increase the likelihood of hotel personnels emotional regulation, leading to emotional acting either surface or deep acting. Therefore, in harmony with Brotheridge and Grandeys (2002) work, it is predicted that display rules, regardless of the type, will affect both acting strategies. 2.3 Consequences of Emotional Labour Ashforth and Humphrey (1993) described emotional labour as a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it can facilitate task performance by regulating interactions and precluding interpersonal problems. On the other hand, it can impair performance by priming expectations of good service that cannot be met (Ashforth and Humphrey, 1993). The following section discusses the positive and negative consequences of performing emotional labour, and particularly, its effects on employees psychological well-being. 2.3.1 Negative Consequences 2.3.1.1 Fusion of Self and Work Role In the emotional labour literature, substantial research in this field addresses unfavourable outcomes. The most-often-cited outcomes are burnout and job dissatisfaction (Morris and Feldman, 1996). Other impacts on the individuals psychological well-being are also discussed in the literature, such as poor self-esteem, depression, cynicism, role alienation, and self-alienation (Ashforth and Humphrey, 1993). Wharton (1999) suggested two reasons why the regulation of service providers emotional displays is problematic. First, to ensure service quality, employers often implement behaviour scripts (such as smile, eye contact, body position, tone of voice) for service providers to follow. This restrictive script prevents service providers from interacting with customers based on spontaneous intuition, but on a script drawn up by employers. That is, workers own complex for interaction may be suppressed and replaced by an organizationally sanctioned response (Wharton, 1999). Second, service providers may have different interests vis-à  -vis the outcome of the interaction. That is, employers believe that service providers emotional displays are instruments of service excellence. While front-line employees may sometimes share those objectives, they do not always do so. In these instances, workers interests may be sacrificed. Hochschild (1983) theorized about the consequences of emotional labor based on service providers capacity to strike a balance between the requirements of the self and the demands of the work role. Sustained performance of emotional labour may produce a fusion of self and work role, an estrangement between self and work role that comes at the expense of the self, or a separation between self and work role that comes at the expense of the work role (Hochschild, 1983). The fusion of self and work role can be seen as the service providers inability to depersonalize and detach themselves from the work roles. Research has shown that workers in human service occupations, such as social work or counselling, are often too identified with their work roles and lose the ability to maintain sufficient psychological distance between the emotional requirements of their job and their sense of self. For example, hotel service providers use deep acting techniques to conjure up desired positive emotions and to suppress felt negative emotions. But after awhile, many these service providers reveal that they have a hard time recovering their true feelings once their shifts are over. They begin to lose track of when they are acting and when they are not (Hochschild, 1983). 2.3.1.2 Emotive Dissonance Contrarily, another potential consequence of emotional labour is the estrangement between self and work role. Just as workers on the assembling lines become estranged from their bodies, service providers may become estranged from their true feelings (Hochschild, 1983). Hochschild claimed that most of the negative consequences of performing emotional labour have its roots in this estrangement. The estrangement between oneself and the work role is often presented in the forms of emotive dissonance or unauthenticated, which can be seen as a result of surface acting. Similar to cognitive dissonance, emotive dissonance reflects a gap between felt emotions and expressed emotions. For example, a front desk employee greets a customer in a cheerful and enthusiastic manner but indeed, she or he feels down and unhappy. The inconsistency between expressed emotions (cheerful and enthusiastic) and felt emotions (down and unhappy) is emotive dissonance. Based on the assumption that people are motivated to maintain and enhance their sense of self as being meaningful and authentic (Erickson Wharton, 1997), the experience of emotive dissonance may cause the individual to feel false and insincere. Researchers suggest that the regular occurrence of emotive dissonance may be harmful in terms of employees personal and work-related maladjustment, such as poor self-esteem, depression, and alienation from work (Ashforth Humphrey, 1993). Hochschild (1993) suggested that emotive dissonance is most harmful to employees psychological well-being when it comes at the expense of the self, and is less harmful when it is at the expense of the work role. When emotive dissonance comes at the expense of the self, employees blame themselves for displaying fictitious emotions and feelings of unauthenticated. Thereafter, this estrangement of oneself leads to negative consequences such as depression (Ashforth Humphrey, 1993), drug or alcohol abuse (Hochschild, 1983), and low self-efficacy (Seeman, 1991). Antithetically, when emotive dissonance comes at the expense of the work role, employees ascribe this false emotion or inauthentic expression to the demands of the job rather than to the desires of the self (Wharton, 1999), and thus it may be less harmful in terms of their psychological well-being. In an interview with a waitress, Paules (1991) documented how one waitress does not overextend herself into her work. The waitress says that when she distances herself from her job she does not feel bad about it (Paules, 1991, p.286). 2.3.2 Positive Consequences Although substantial literature on emotional labor implies negative consequences, some researchers have suggested positive consequences for both organizations and individuals. 2.3.2.1 Organization For an organization, regulating employees emotional display in a highly scripted manner can ensure task effectiveness and service quality (Ashforth and Humphrey, 1993), and increase sales and repeated business (Rafaeli and Sutton, 1987). Also, the positive aspects of emotional labour include financial rewards (i.e., tips or salaries) (Rafaeli Sutton, 1987); increased satisfaction, security, and brand loyalty (Wharton, 1993). 2.3.2.2 Individual Although customers are major stress-producing figures for front-line employees, customers also provide employees with many entertaining and satisfying moments in their working (Tolich, 1993). One reason for this satisfaction is that customers enliven otherwise monotonous tasks. Most of the entry-level jobs in the service industry are highly routine and standardized (i.e., supermarket clerks or food servers). Because of the variety of customers, their presence, even when annoying, is only somewhat distracting, and can be stimulating (Tolich, 1993). Rose (2001) recognized the positive function of emotional labour because interaction with customers serves as a comic relief; he conducted an extensive qualitative study on waitresses working-life. He described the sources of satisfaction for wait staff as below: Some waitresses gain satisfaction from contributing to a customers enjoyment (you supply nurturing and sustenance, the things that make life pleasurable). Some respond to the hustle and stimulation of a busy restaurant, the sense of being in the middle of thingsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦some like the attention (the spotlights on you)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..some comment on the pleasure of the attenuated human interaction: though well never get to know each other, theres a really nice feelings that go back and forth (Rose, 2000, p. 19). Roses (2000) case studies offer some support for the argument that performing emotional labour is not always psychologically damaging. The interaction with the public, being at the centre of attention or a sense of joy when knowing ones work is altruistic in nature all bring some intrinsic rewards to ones job when performing emotional labour. The reward or benefit aspect of performing emotional labour receives some empirical support. Wharton (1993) found that workers employed in jobs requiring substantial amounts of emotional labour experience higher job satisfaction and lower emotional exhaustion than other workers (Wharton, 1993). Adelman (1989) found a similar result for table servers. She concluded that, contrary to Hochschilds estrangement assumption, performing emotional labour does not adversely impact employees psychological well-being, but enhances their job satisfaction (Adelman, 1989). 2.4 Moderators of Emotional Labour 2.4.1 Successful Recruitment and Selection Karatepe and Aleshinloye (2009) pointed out that in order to fill vacant positions in organizations, managers should use effective recruitment and selection tools. It is significant that managers should consider the personality traits of candidates in the selection process, focus on candidates who are intrinsically motivated, and try to hire those who can manage their felt emotions matching organizationally desired display norms in the service encounter. This should be a far-reaching practice among hospitality managers. By doing so, managers can go some way to making such frontline employees manage problems associated with emotional dissonance and exhaustion. Another implication for practice is that employing mentors in the workplace appears to be inevitable, since younger, less educated and less experienced employees are confronted with emotional dissonance and exhaustion (Karatepe and Aleshinloye, 2009). Mentors could help such employees alleviate their emotional dissonance and exhaustion by listening to employees problems and their expectations from the management of the hotel and providing support and guidance (Lee and Akhtar, 2007). 2.4.2 Adequate Training Karatepe and Aleshinloye (2009) also suggested that frontline employees should be trained continuously to learn how to cope with problems that stem from emotional dissonance and emotional exhaustion. This is significant, because effective and continuous training programs in the hospitality industry are not abundant. Therefore, managers should foster social support arising from both supervisors and co-workers in the workplace during these training programs and train their frontline employees in the areas of complaint handling procedures and genuine customer care. Such training programs would also comprise of potential empowerment practices frontline employees would use to deal with customers complaints. The final implication is associated with promotional

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Pro Immigration in the United States Essay -- Pros of Immigration, Immi

One of our nation's biggest problems if you would call it a problem is Immigration. I am writing this to inform my readers or in this case reader why immigration should be legal. I have based my research on three things, economy, Social Security, and freedom of life. I hope this essay will help you see a different perspective of immigration and what it can do for our country. Immigration has been going on in America since the seventeenth century when the English established settlements on Plymouth and Jamestown, which were originally the Native Americans. Notice where I?m going with this? No, ok, read on. Most of the Immigrants were European, until the passage of the Immigration Act was abolished in1965. Approximately one million Immigrants enter the US each year, and about 500,000 come in illegally. (Duignan). Lawmakers have attempted to revise immigration policies and crack down on illegal immigration in order to increase national security ever since 9/11. In 2007, President Bush decided that the best way to stop illegal immigration was to build a wall in-between the US, Mexico boarder. (Mankiller). 1798, a series of four laws passed by a Federalist-controlled Congress in anticipation of war with France during the administration of John Adams. Designed to restrict the pro-French and antiwar activities of the Jeffersonian Republicans, three of the laws d ealt with alien foreigners and one with sedition criticism of government officials and policy. Under the Alien Enemies Act (never repealed but amended) the president was authorized to imprison or deport citizens of enemy nations. The Alien Friends Act never enforced and expired in 1800 permitted deportation of citizens of friendly nations. The Naturalization Act repealed i... ...eing what can they do they have to get help fast but they don?t have money, well they need to get it some where. As a result they come to America, fast and they don?t get a green card, so we blame them for coming in to the country illegally. Just one of the reasons why immigration should be legal. I hope that this essay has taught you that Immigration isn?t awful, but that is good on the economy and some people?s wallets too. As I said in my opening paragraph if you don?t like immigration then remember this never I mean, never go on a trip to Mexico, Europe, Asia and so on because you would be the biggest hypocrites alive. Don?t say no to immigration because if you do they will keep coming, and coming, and coming, just kidding but I beg you remember Immigrants are just like you and me just with a different skin color (maybe) and a diverse language.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Parkinsons Disease and Tissue Transplants Essay -- Health Medicine Me

For nearly 100 years neural tissue has been transplanted in animals. Transplantation of neural tissue into humans, however, began only a few years ago (1). It has been found in animals, that fetal brain grafts in damaged adult host brains reduce some of the functional deficits caused by brain lesions. Even though some neurons from the transplanted tissue survive and develop reciprocal connections with host brain tissue, this is not enough to completely replace damaged fibers and support behavioral recovery Usually the grafts will not develop a normal morphological appearance, but some metabolic activity can be found within the transplant. Release and diffusion of trophic substances from the transplant and the damaged host brain may partially restore neuronal and behavioral functions. It is hypothesized that this combination of fetal brain transplants and trophic substances may provide a better opportunity for recovery than either treatment given by itself. While this paper focuses on fetal brain grafts as a means to treat Parkinsonism, research is also being conducted in conjunction with Alzheimer’s Disease, visual, frontal, and motor cortex lesions, hippocampal lesions, and many others (2,3) There are two current approaches to neural transplantation regarding Parkinson s; adrenal medullary and fetal brain grafts. Both methods suffer from limitations in tissue availability, cellular uniformity, and general applicability. The success of neural transplantation in animal models of Parkinson’s syndrome led to its clinical application in human patients with the syndrome. Each of the two methods mentioned has advantages and disadvantages. Transplantation of adrenal medullary tissue has the advantage of ready availability of human le... ... 1990, 28: 585-599. 3. Mickley, G. A. et. al. Neural grafts attenuate behavioral deficits produced by early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentate granule cells. Brain Research, 1990, 509: 280-292. 4. Bredesen, D. E. et. al. Neural Transplantation Using Temperature-sensitive Immortalized Neural Cells: A Preliminary Report. Ann. Neurol., 1990, 27: 205-207. 5. Hirsch, E. C. et. al. Does adrenal graft enhance recovery of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol., 1990; 27: 676-682. 6. Kordower, J. H. et. al. Putative Chromaffin Cell Survival and Enhanced Host-derived TH-fiber Innervation Following a Functional Adrenal Medulla Autograft for Parkinson’s Disease. Ann Neurol., 1991; 29: 405-412. 7. Stromberg, I. et. al. Reinnervation of Dopamine-denervated striatum by Substantia Nigra Transplants. Neuroscience, 1985, 14: 981-990.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

L.A.?s Traffic Causes Trouble Essay -- essays research papers

Whether you’re stuck on the 405 freeway during rush hour, on the 15 freeway heading back from a long-weekend vacation, or driving through the busy streets of Hollywood, traffic on the highways and streets of Los Angeles can often be a hassle. In Dagoberto Gilb’s short story Love in L.A., first published in 1986, the troubles of traffic are experienced first hand by our main character Jake. Jake is a common fellow with a steady occupation who is merely trying to make his way to work through the busy streets of Hollywood. As he is working his way through the piled traffic, not paying complete attention to the road in front of him, Jake crashes into the back of a Toyota. In the midst of exchanging information with the driver of the Toyota, Jake finds himself attracted to the female driver, whose name is Mariana. Jake attempts several times to ask her out for some coffee or breakfast; however his persistent attempts were not successful. The two drivers continue to exchange insurance information, however Jake not having any valid insurance gives false information to Mariana, and the two of them go their separate ways. In this short story, the author demonstrates the effect of gender roles, Marxist criticism, and new criticism in his writing. Written in third person limited, this short story is a vivid portrayal of gender roles. Looking in the perspective of a gender critic, one might say that the character of Jake is very persistent. At first, Jake asks Mariana if she would like...

Bell Rock Lighthouse: Signal and Guide to Fishermen and Travelers

I’ve always been interested with lighthouses even before I watched this documentary film that’s why it wasn’t hard or boring for me. I’ve always wanted to go to a lighthouse and see how it flashes lights towards the sea. It’s amazing how it saves many lives of people and even animals that live underwater. I find it wonderful learning how to build a lighthouse, well, technically. This Bell Rock lighthouse was built in a rock, a very dangerous rock according to people who came across it. The man behind this rock, Robert Stevenson, built this rock between 1807 and 1810. And it’s amazing that this certain lighthouse still stand even to this day! Awesome, indeed! The history of Bell Rock was amusing and interesting as well in my opinion. How many ship wrecks had happened there before, I had no idea. Robert Stevenson, a man full of dreams, wanted to pursue building a lighthouse on Bell Rock. Although many people were against his plan, he stayed determined and thought of many ideas how to build a lighthouse without the waves crashing the base. That was one of the disadvantages since the lighthouse will be built in the sea. He based his idea to some already built lighthouses and hired almost sixty men to work on this project. They went to the sea, with a steady ship floating not so far away from the rock, they went with the ships to the rock and started digging for the base of the lighthouse. One thing I noticed about this story, the laborers were all religious men. They pray before and after working which is very admirable. The going back and forth routine has been a disadvantage to Stevenson as he were already behind time working with the base of the lighthouse. He decided, together with his men, to build a beacon in the rock which they can stay to. They started with the beacon not long. The question would be how long will it stay standing? Storms can sweep away the beacon and they were still behind schedule. Fortunately, there weren’t any super storms during the days they put the pieces one by one. The workers stayed loyal to Stevenson as he instructs them to do so. Of course, more dilemmas had befallen to Stevenson as his workers didn’t want to work during the Sabbath days. Some of them had lost faith to him and that made Stevenson’s task harder. They believed that doing work on a Sabbath is against God. It’s disrespectful and disloyalty. They continued working for him though despite the lack of faith. Another dilemma came, two of the men died (not consecutively) while working. Their bodies weren’t found at all. It diminished the worker’s self-esteem as they work with the lighthouse in the Bell Rock while still staying in the beacon. After all the difficulties relating to the building of the lighthouse in Bell Rock, they finished after three years with pure diligence and teamwork and of course, faith to God. However, Robert Stevenson, the man behind this magnificent project, had continued facing problems which seemed to be beyond his limit. Unfortunately, his twin and a daughter had died of whooping cough. That was the sad part here. If I were in his shoes, I’d probably die of depression. That was tough. But Stevenson was a tough man from the start. Even though he had a huge loss on his part, he still continued with the Bell Rock Lighthouse project. His work became his only focus. And after they finished it, it’s as if they have produced a work of nature. Something deeper in the lighthouse has touched many people’s lives. It was also considered as a tourist spot. Kudos to Stevenson for it! On the other hand, John Rennie, whom Stevenson had asked opinions about before, ranted that Stevenson didn’t deserve his popularity since he was the one who suggested about the curve base of the lighthouse which wasn’t true at all since Stevenson was there all the time and he based it through another’s work. A lighthouse serves as a signal, a guide to all the fishermen and to all the travelers using the sea as their way of commuting. It serves as guidance for everyone who wants to go home and take the right path. Same for what happened to Stevenson and what he had went through by building this lighthouse on a risky rock.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Demographic Factors Research

Running dot DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS RESEARCH demographic Factors inquiry University of Phoenix MMPBL 560 Man maturation in a cross-cultural Environment October 19, 2009 Organizations somewhat the world argon experiencing the do of cultural and world-wide assortment. Kellogg, Starbucks, McDonalds, and mandril atomic number 18 four companies introduced in this piece of music.They drop been re huntinged in holy order to mark how sever all(prenominal)y comp any(prenominal) is cloaked by demographic factors, how these factors atomic number 18 bedd, and what establishments ar implemented to evoke the success of the crease thus, this paper illustrates the central flow concepts and their application to the topper consecrates of these companies. The dynamics and dimensions of variation in an win over magnitudely spherical argumentation environs slew scrap the demographic factors of most giving medications.Basically, Kottak and Kozaitis (2003) confine, In the twenty - world-class century, the overwhelming majority of the worlds population, along with a super percent suppurate of the populations of the United utters and Canada, impart be descendants of the non-Western groups (Ch. 1, p. 29). In separate words, organizations will pack to keep an eye on how to manage the complexities of a respective(a) custody. Among these complexities, organizations will copse demographic factors such(prenominal) as age, race, lifting up train, religion, political party p lineament, sexual orientation, and sexuality (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003).Beca single-valued function of these diverse factors, organizations need to be brisk to recognize the individuals behavior that is influenced by ending, values, and beliefs. To illustrate, culture refers to spates identity in their traditions, customs, and delegacy of flavour (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003). In fact, Kottak and Kozaitis (2003) take for that culture is all encompassing. In essence, it is heavy fo r organizations to drive in that individuals argon influenced by democratic culture as substantially. Therefore, individuals in a diverse oeuvre need to take in and respect for individually integrity(prenominal) some others differences.It is not enough to k straight that the attain beat is composed of battalion with contrastive views in life, values, and attitudes. Kottak and Kozaitis (2003) state that Ethnic diversity whitethorn be associated with positive group fundamental interaction and coexistence or with contravene (Ch. 5, p. 12). Knowing that diversity nates be beneficial to the organization will admirer commission immix appropriate value systems inwardly the society. However, in the event that conflict exists as a result of diversity, precaution would need to strike alternative best(p)(p) practices to add onress the organisational conflict.Given the complexities of a diverse manpower, organizations need to examine al sorts alternative solutions to friend them manage the demographic factors within the participation. Kottak and Kozaitis (2003) decl ar that Failure to achieve an accurate count on and appreciation of a race-based group of spate results in racism (Ch. 6, p. 3). Certainly, organizations need to alleviate any potential and undesirable outcomes that stool negatively affect the reputation and lucrativeness of the business.To put it differently, The great sociopolitical paradox of the present-day(a) world is that both integration and decomposition ar increasing (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003, Ch. 3, p. 5). In addition, sphericisation is contri exclusivelying to the huntforce diversity most the world, and organizations argon continually existence challenged to learn in the buff ways to manage these changes. Organizations argon not only challenged with internal changes but in any case with external forces such as economic and political factors.The importance of apprehension the presence and influence of dive rsity that affect the contemporary American culture can prove enormously beneficial for any organization. In effect, organizations need to learn how to in effect manage the effects of demographic factors involving their readiness and decision making in need and rewarding individuals (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003). Consider for instance, Kellogg started its business to a greater extent than light speed years ago and has readily expand into new geographies, induceing to a stead unshakable branch figure that provided them with a international business, which still stands whole today. man remaining a superior global food club, Kelloggs circumspection realized that they had to take away the strongest possible resources to livelihood their business growth in a diverse and competitive environment (Kellogg, 2009). Likewise, Starbucks is managing its competitor challenges the authorized economic conditions are factors that Starbucks ask to recollect in order to grocery store t he new products to pre treat its clientele and bring in new guests. Hence, Starbucks is wise to use the four Ps pose Price, Product, Place, and Promotion, to determine the vogue of action best suited to stay ahead of the competition.To be clear, both Kellogg and Starbucks are managing the effects of postmodernity that is, postmodertnity describes our season and smeartodays world in flux, with people on the move who have knowing to manage multiple identities depending on place and context (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003, Ch. p. 29). To manage the influence of postmodernity within the context of demographic factors, Kellogg and Starbucks are implementing strategical approaches to aid them in their success involving global and cultural diversity.For example, Kellogg commit itself to developing a statewide and ground-breaking provider diversity mannikin of instruction. This weapons platform was to cultivate strategic procurement relationships with W/MBE-owned, controlled and opera ted businesses epoch preparation products and operate Kellogg purchased this would discontinue them to foster the growth of their business musical composition market the long-term growth of Kellogg (Kellogg, 2009). Similarly, Starbucks expand the menu to include products to target non- hot chocolate drinkers, with the base of blended or iced cold coffee berry bean drinks, frappuccinos, caffe caffe lattes, mochas, and teas.Starbucks creatively combined a diverse menu consisting of bold aromas to chromatic sweet flavors, attracting a range of customers to Starbucks at respective(a) sentences and for various reasons. Starbucks invention to satisfy the demographic factors has prompted concern to add items on the menu for anyone willing to filtrate among them, Professionals heading to an early morning collision needing a stout cup of coffee, housewives fish filet for a late morning latte with friends after dropping the children at enlighten and the high check and co llege students in look to of Wi-Fi connection and snack (Kembell, 2002).Another company that has continued to strive for cultural adaptability in a diverse global environment is McDonalds. This company is an organization that can be name in any coun castigate, service nearly 47 million customers about the world. Because of McDonalds odd demographic factors, double-deckers are trained through with(predicate) a oecumenical Management Development Program. This program encompasses McDonalds core values and principles along with the consignment to treat customers, the federation, and employees (McDonalds, 2009).One of the demographic factors poignant McDonalds management think involves the aging population in Australia. In other words, McDonalds management is challenged with having to change its marketing approach in order to pull ahead the newly identified groups (Monash University, 2009). Similar to Kellogg and Starbucks, McDonalds management is searching for effective systems to help aid the company in hollering the increasing changes in demographics.Fortunately, McDonalds continues to find strength on its business models in which McDonalds management is committed to special customers expectations in each(prenominal) restaurant e real time (McDonalds, 2009). Accordingly, McDonalds management recognizes that the companys core values go beyond demographics, for this reason, McDonalds philosophy declares, We will arrogate every probability to innovate and lead the industry on behalf of our customers (McDonalds, 2009).Effectively, the best practices of McDonalds, Starbucks and Kellogg turn up up the dedication and commitment to learn and make use of successful systems that will help them serve customers regardless of demographic factors. Unquestionably, these organizations need to to a fault integrate rewards and motivation systems to help them fix a diverse workforce anyplace in the world. For example, pergola Education and culture is a leading provider of workforce development work to suppose- stressers, workers, employers, and communities nationwide ( mandrel E & T, 2009).mandril employees come from many different walks of life, employees of all ages, religions, and other factors these employees are set equally within the organization in decisions concerning rewards and performance. Kottak and Kozaitis (2003) state that Cultural diversity refers to variety in institutions, traditions, language, customs, rituals, beliefs, and values (Ch. 4, p. 6). In summary, organizations are required to continually scan their business environment in order to identify the challenges that come with a diverse workforce.Overall, Kellogg, Starbucks, McDonalds, and Arbor are challenged with cultural diversity, yet separately company is finding the way to integrate successful best practices in the workplace. As noted, the dimensions of diversity in relation to each demographic factor play a crucial role in how Kellogg, Starbu cks, McDonalds, and Arbor cope with the increasing changes of the business environment. Accordingly, the practices of these companies serve to address the presence of a diverse workforce in a constantly changing society. Synopsis of Kellogg by Wendy HarrisKellogg Company, a company with many competitive advantages in global chats, started its company much than 100 years ago and quickly spread out into new geographies. With a stead fast growth plan that provided them with a global business which still stands strong today. While remaining a superior global food company, Kellogg Company realized that they had to have the strongest possible resources to support their business growth. A great deal of that strength was acquired through raw materials and other products and function from the widest and best foundation of resources.During the mental synthesis process, Kellogg Company committed itself to developing a comprehensive and ground-breaking supplier diversity program. This prog ram was to cultivate strategic procurement relationships with W/MBE-owned, controlled and operated businesses while supplying products and go Kellogg purchased this would allow them to foster the growth of their business while marketing the long-term growth of the Kellogg Company. Kelloggs code of carry, their management staff is required to hold received employees to special responsibilities under the Code.Kellogg believes its their managers function to create and maintain a work environment in which all employees and agents know that ethical and legal behavior is judge of them at all times. Each manager is expected to model the highest standards of ethical business conduct and encourage discussion of the ethical and unethical as hearty as the legal implications of business decisions. It is the mangers responsibility to trade name sure that anyone needing additional information in an front to do his or her job receives appropriate policies and preparation.It is the manag ers responsibility not to hire or retain any employee or agent who they feel may take on in unlawful conduct or unethical activities. In 2005, Kellogg incorporated an awards program called the W. K. Kellogg Values Award, which is given annually to one individual and one team of employees who best exhibit the K Values while working(a). This program initiated to support their code of conduct as hygienic as the companys mission. Synopsis of Starbucks by Colleen Holdahl teen urban professionals consuming specialized coffees were the first to patronize Starbucks.Today the popular coffee chain attracts 25 million people each week and draws a large demographic of patrons varying in age and ethnic backgrounds (Hanft, 2005). The most common customer Starbucks attracts is of course, the coffee drinker, yet the company expanded the menu to include products to target non-coffee drinkers, with the launch of blended or iced cold coffee drinks, frappuccinos, lattes, mochas, and teas. With th e presence of bold aromas to creamy sweet flavors, a range of customers are frequenting Starbucks at various times and for various reasons.Starbucks has items on the menu for anyone willing to try Professionals heading to an early morning conflux needing a stout cup of coffee, housewives stop for a late morning latte with friends after dropping the children at school and the high school and college students in search of Wi-Fi connection and snack (Kembell, 2002). Adding new products is a challenge as Starbucks must consider many factors. For example when the new Creme Frappuccino was created, Starbucks took into reflection the demographic areas to launch the drink, the market to target, and the packaging of the new product.Introducing the Creme Frappuccino, Starbucks faces a competition that the company has not previously experienced, with competitors imitating the Creme Frappuccino. Competition and the current economic condition, both are factors Starbucks unavoidably to consi der how to market the new products to preserve current patrons and bring in new customers. Starbucks is wise to use the four Ps model Price, Product, Place, and Promotion, to determine the course of action, best suited to stay ahead of the competition.Emotions are potent internal influences depict by Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, and Best (2007) as strong, comparatively uncontrollable feelings that affect behavior (p. 364). Starbucks is in a controversy over the suppositious injustice and treatment toward coffee growers in Ethiopia. The controversy deals with negative emotions of customers, due to the enunciate that Starbucks deprives the Ethiopian growers of $90 Million annually by opposing the Ethiopian political sympathiess efforts to trademark three topically grown coffee beans (Economist, para. ). The Creme Frappucino gives Starbucks an opportunity to leave a guilt-free alternative to non-coffee drinkers or patrons who counterbalance the Ethiopian controversy, during the time the legal and public-relations situation is in transition. Synopsis of McDonalds by Marisela Jimenez McDonalds is an organization that can be found in every country, military service nearly 47 million customers around the world. Because of McDonalds unique demographic factors, managers are trained through a comprehensive Management Development Program.This program encompasses McDonalds core values and principles along with the dedication to serve customers, the community, and employees (McDonalds, 2009). Hence, the demographic factors affecting McDonalds vary from each country, yet management understands that by following McDonalds philosophy, their readying can help mitigate the effects of each demographic factor. To illustrate, some of the demographic factors affecting McDonalds management cookery involves the aging population in Australia, the chasten in birth rate, the changing family, the enlarge in ethnic diversity, and the population growth.In other words, McDonalds managem ent is challenged with having to change its marketing approach in order to reach the newly identified groups (Monash University, 2009). To address this organizational conflict involving the demographic factors, McDonalds management focuses on its services and products. Accordingly, McDonalds management is trained to approach each conflict with honesty and integrity (Monash University, 2009). not only is McDonalds management guardianship up with the rapid demographic changes, they are also continuing to manage conflict by remaining committed to their principles.This centre that McDonalds management is committed to exceeding customers expectations in every restaurant every time (McDonalds, 2009). Fundamentally, McDonalds best practices on dealing with organizational conflict are strongly carved on its philosophy that is We will seize every opportunity to innovate and lead the industry on behalf of our customers (McDonalds, 2009). Hence, McDonalds management recognizes that their fo cus is every customer, regardless of age, ethnicity, sex, and location.McDonalds is an organization that understands how to set off and reward people. Consider for instance, McDonalds has what is called the great unwashed Promise. This means that McDonalds promises to value each and every employee, their growth and their contribution every day in every way (McDonalds, 2009). McDonalds managers recognize and respect each employee each employee is empowered and coached. This organizational practice is found in every McDonalds around the world, for this reason, McDonalds prides itself on offering more than a pay check to our employees.Our cluster members enjoy flexible schedules, paid training and the chance to have fun working with friends while learning valuable life skills (McDonalds, 2009). Synopsis of Arbor E&T by Eduardo Mata Arbor Education and prep (Arbor E & T) is a company with offices passim the United States and have a very diverse workforce that borders a unique demo graphic factor. Arbor Education and genteelness is a leading provider of workforce development services to job-seekers, workers, employers and communities nationwide (Arbor E & T, 2009).Arbor employees come from many different walks of life, employees of all ages, religions, and other factors and these employees are treated equally within the organization when it comes to decisions concerning rewards and performance. Founded in 1968, Arbor E&T is now the largest single supplier of job- cogitated education, counseling and concern assistance under federally funded programs such as the Workforce Investment make and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families programs (Arbor E & T, 2009).Management planning for many of its customers receiving federally funded assistance requires that certain guidelines are followed and because of being federally funded and services provided must find the customers indispensabilitys and expectations along with the government regulations. Arbor E & T provides services to a wide variety of customers pursuit employment, education or training and also provide excellent services to unsettled and seasonal farm workers and United States Veterans pursuance employment and other services. Training is provided to the inherent workforce in providing the best services possible to each group.Arbor management is committed to providing the leadership, training, and resources required to enable our employees to systematically adhere to regulatory exigencys, to tirelessly seek improvement of our processes, and to continue to provide world-class services to all of our customers. We are utilise and caring people who form a company providing excellent human services that enhance the lives of individuals. The company rewards its employees based on employee performance and whether their goals were met for the preceding year. As found in Arbor E & T (2009) Our goal is to be known by our clients and by the workforce development community as t he leading provider of services in the markets we serve, i. e. , One-Stops, TANF, youth, early childhood education, and vocational training programs. Our quality management system is a critical element of our effort to achieve this goal. References Arbor. (2009). Arbor education and training. Retrieved October 17, 2009 from http//www. arboret. com/ Hanft, Adam. (April 1, 2005). What you can learn from starbucks. Retrieved October 13, 2009 from http//www. inc. com/resources/marketing/articles/20050401/starbucks. html.Hawkins, D. , Mothersbaugh, D. and Best, R. (2007). The Economist. Consumer behavior building marketing strategy. Retrieved October 13, 2009 from http//highered. mcgraw- hill. com/sites/0073101370/information_center_view0/revision_changes. html. Kellogg Company. (2009). Kellogg company. Retrieved October 17, 2009, from http//www2. kelloggs. com/General. aspx? ID=466 Kellogg Company. (2003). We act with integrity and show respect in everything we do. Retrieved from http/ /files. shareholder. com/downloads/K/749861120x0x196418/ ec25a03a-7081-450d- a942-16ee7ad2ee1b/GlobalCodeofEthic. df Kembell, B. (April 2002). inherited the starbucks fever starbucks marketing strategy. Missouri State University. Kottak, C. P. , Kozaitis, K. A. (2003). On being different diversity and multiculturalism in the north american mainstream. (2nd ed. ). naked as a jaybird York The McGraw-Hill Companies. McDonalds. (2009). Our story. Online. Available http//www. mcdonalds. ca/en/aboutus/index. aspx (2009, October 16). Monash University. (2009). Briohnys report. Online. Available http//www. monash. edu. au/lls/llonline/writing/business-economics/marketing/3. 3. 2. xml (2009, October 16). MMPBL/560 Demographic Factors query Rubric week 2 Criterion Un capable copacetic Exceptional Score Knowledge of turn tail Concepts (40%) Describe the Effects of DemographicDemonstrates a take of friendshipDemonstrates a take of fellowship Demonstrates a level of knowled ge that 2. 00 Factors on Management Planning. that is below the requirement that meets the requirement meets or exceeds the requirement and is well supported Analyze the Role Demographic Demonstrates a level of knowledgeDemonstrates a level of knowledge Demonstrates a level of knowledge that 1. 33 Factors Play in Contributing to that is below the requirement that meets the requirement meets or exceeds the requirement and is Organizational Conflict. well supported Examine the Influence of Demonstrates a level of knowledgeDemonstrates a level of knowledge Demonstrates a level of knowledge that 1. 33 Demographic Factors on case-by-case that is below the requirement that meets the requirement meets or exceeds the requirement and is Rewards and Recognition. well supported Research (20%) Provide Benchmark Research on The benchmarked companies The benchmarked companies In addition to meeting the requirements of2. 0 Organizational Applications of situations do not r elate to the situations relate to the course satisfactory, the benchmarked companies Course Objectives course concepts, or are not concepts and are researched from situations provide a original reporting of researched from schoolman or tradeacademic or trade publication course objectives publication sources sources. The pee is ranged between satisfactory and exceptional. overcritical Thinking (15%) Demonstrate Critical Thought in Does not demonstrate critical Demonstrates critical feeling in In addition to meeting requirements of 1. 0 Analyzing Information thought in the synopsis of the analyzing the information by satisfactory, synthesizes information information, or analysis is presenting various perspectives oncrosswise concepts effectively disjointed the concepts Written communication (15%) Demonstrate Quality and Written communication is Written communication is effectiveIn addition to meeting requirements of 2. 5 force in Written ine ffective, with numerous satisfactory, the paper is engaging to the Communication spelling and well-formed errors reader with concise and clear or poorly constructed sentences communication Format, Style & indite Standards (10%) Adhere to University of Phoenix Numerous errors in format, style,Few errors in format, style, or more or less no errors in format, style, or 1. 25 Writing Style (APA) Requirements or reference citation reference citation reference citation Final Score== 12. 1 Team B, The overall submission was provoke and well written. The concept of management planning was thoroughly researched and discussed. entirely of the companies clearly describe the organizational conflict except for Arbor and Starbucks omitted the section on research and recognition. All of the companies were demonstrated as benchmarked companies that addressed the concepts however, in some instances a piece was omitted.The score was reduced under critical thought becaus e only comparisons were addressed and not all concepts were covered. The written communication was well through with(p) and only a minor APA change issue was noted. Your research section as the instructors plagiarism hold in noted consisted of an 13% plagiarism rate. The instructors plagiarism checker also checks past student papers, as well as a more thorough Internet search. Not everyone turned in their team evaluation however, by the way it looks everyone participated equally in the group. Good work